### Fundamentals of data structures

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OOP adopts a higher level of abstraction, namely objects. A data structure, like any other abstracted entity, is encapsulated as an object with state data and behavior functionality. An object is an instance of its class type. Parameters in method calls can now be objects of any specified type, possessing not only pure data, but also specified functional behavior.

### Importance

Performance wise linked list is slower than array because there is no direct access to linked list elements. Linked list is proved to be a useful data structure when the number of elements to be stored is not known ahead of time. There are many flavors of linked list you will see: linear, circular, doubly, and doubly circular. Stack is a last-in-first-out strategy data structure; this means that the element stored in last will be removed first.

Stack has specific but very useful applications; some of them are as follows:. Queue is a first-in-first-out data structure. The element that is added to the queue data structure first, will be removed from the queue first. Dequeue, priority queue, and circular queue are the variants of queue data structure.

Queue has the following application uses:.

Tree is a hierarchical data structure. The very top element of a tree is called the root of the tree. Except the root element every element in a tree has a parent element, and zero or more children elements. All elements in the left sub-tree come before the root in sorting order, and all those in the right sub-tree come after the root. Tree is the most useful data structure when you have hierarchical information to store.

## Fundamentals of Data Structures – Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni

For example, directory structure of a file system; there are many variants of tree you will come across. Some of them are Red-black tree, threaded binary tree, AVL tree, etc.

Heap is a binary tree that stores a collection of keys by satisfying heap property. Max heap and min heap are two flavors of heap data structure. The heap property for max heap is: each node should be greater than or equal to each of its children. While, for min heap it is: each node should be smaller than or equal to each of its children. Heap data structure is usually used to implement priority queues.

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## Fundamentals Of Data Structures In C++ (PUL) Book at Rs | Computer Books | ID:

Dictionary is a data structure that maintains a set of items indexed on basis of keys. Dictionary stores data in form of key-element pairs.

Hash Table is again a data structure that stores data in form of key-element pairs. A key is a non-null value which is mapped to an element. And, the element is accessed on the basis of the key associated with it. Hash table is a useful data structure for implementing dictionary.

## Data Structures Fundamentals

Graph is a networked data structure that connects a collection of nodes called vertices, by connections, called edges. An edge can be seen as a path or communication link between two nodes. The Datatypes are mainly categorized into three major types. These are: Built-in data type: These types of data types are predefined and has a fixed set of rules for declaration. In other words, these data types when belonging to a particular programming language has built-in support, and hence they are also called as built-in data types. Examples of such data types are: Integer type Boolean type Character type Floating type Derived Data type: These data types can be implemented independently within a language.

These data types are built by combining both primary and built-in data types and then associating operations on them.

For dealing with the various concepts of data structures, you can use any programming language. Basic Operations of Data Structures Some specific operations process all data in the data structures. The specific data structure that has been chosen mostly depends on the number of time of the occurrence of the operation which needs to be carried out on the data structure.

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