Green Roof Systems: A Guide to the Planning, Design and Construction of Building Over Structure
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Posted by Jason King at PM. Labels: books , green roofs , materials , resources , vegitecture.
- Stolen Child.
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Thanks for the great review! Sorry I am only a year late in reading it! I found another list of books you may be interested in, including the one you discussed, at Clean Air through Green roofs.
Thanks again! Scott May 1, at PM. Anonymous July 8, at PM. Choosing a durable, quality waterproofing assembly is crucial for green roofs, since the waterproofing assembly is buried under the green roof, so repairing or replacing the waterproofing is more costly and more complicated than for a traditional roof.
Consult with a roofing consultant or other qualified professional to design the waterproofing assembly for a new roof, or to evaluate an existing roof on which the green roof will be installed.
Testing right after waterproofing is installed allows for correction of any leaks prior to installing the green roof. Testing after all construction traffic on the roof is complete will detect whether or not any leaks developed between the time of the first leak detection test and the completion of all subsequent work on the roof.
The Importance of preserving an option for post-construction leak surveys will, however, influence the green roof design. Leak detection of green roof assemblies that incorporate root-barriers is very challenging, if not impossible in most instances.
Green Roof Systems
Workmanship and proper construction sequencing are the factors mostly closely correlated to waterproofing success. Leak testing, while a prudent precaution and check, is not a substitute for craftsmanlike installation of the waterproofing layer. A root barrier prevents plant roots from damaging the waterproofing membrane. While some waterproofing membranes can resist roots on their own, many will require an additional component to protect the waterproofing membrane from root damage.
When plants with vigorous roots are selected, an additional root barrier layer is often installed above root resistant membranes. The root barrier is sometimes part of the drainage board.
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In most applications a cushioning layer will be installed on top of the waterproofing or root-barrier to resist strains induced by point loads or puncture from sharp protections. This protection layer is a water-permeable, synthetic fiber material with good puncture resistance.
It is often part of the drainage panel. While green roofs are designed to retain and detain stormwater and supply vegetation with the water they need, drainage components are also needed to remove excess water. Inadequate drainage can result, for example, in structural loading problems, major damage to the building, as well as problems with plant health. Drainage capacity must also account for vertical sheet flow from adjacent facades or tall parapets. In most assemblies, a fabric is selected that will freely admit plant roots.
Green roofs need to be protected from erosion during all phases of construction and maintenance. Some techniques that can be used to protect soil from eroding include erosion control blanket, mats, or soil tackifier. Care must be taken not to damage waterproofing membrane when securing erosion control fabric.
Once a roof is fully covered with vegetation, the vegetation typically protects soil from erosion. Plant selection should be informed by. Green roofs with a diverse plant palette are usually more resilient than those with very few species and also generally provide greater stormwater and other ecological benefits.
If winter aesthetics are of concern, be sure to include some species with winter interest. A number of different techniques can be used to install green roof vegetation, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Choice of technique used to install green roof vegetation will depend on. The following table shows some of the pros and cons of some potential green roof vegetation installation techniques.
Comparison of most common extensive green roof planting methods Link to this table. A combination of techniques can be used to combine benefits of several techniques as well as to maximize vegetation resilience. Examples include the following.
Landscape+Urbanism: Reading List: Green Roof Systems
Leak detection systems allow for pinpointing the exact location of leaks and can also detect small imperfections in the waterproofing. Milestones when leak detection testing is especially valuable include the following. Several types of leak detection systems are available, including high and low voltage surface surveys and built-in time-domain reflectometer TDR sensors.
High voltage methods cannot be used in wet environments and therefore are useful only as constructon-phase quality control approach. Low voltage and TDR methods rely on the facts that: 1 the waterproofing membrane is an electrical insulator, and 2 water is an electrically conductive medium. The low voltage method is a survey technique that can be applied to green roof that are designed to enable this approach. For this reason there are few, if any, initial capital costs. TDR sensor arrays must be built into the roofing system.
Unlike the low voltage method, however, these systems can provide real-time on-demand information about the waterproofing status and alarm owners if a problem is detected. If leak detection is desired, ensure green roof system is designed to be compatible with leak detection, as leak detection of green roof assemblies that incorporate root-barriers is very challenging, if not impossible, in most instances. Typically a water holding fabric or a plastic sheet with cup-like depressions, the water retention layer holds water for later use by plants.
Water retention layers are available in a range of water holding capacities, typically between 0. While not all extensive green roofs require permanent irrigation, almost all green roofs require irrigation during the establishment period unless adequate rainfall occurs , often several times a day.
Overhead watering is usually needed immediately after installing plugs, seeds, or cuttings. Even green roofs with underground drip irrigation systems will need overhead watering until the roots have grown enough to reach water from the irrigation driplines. It is therefore essential to ensure access to water will be available during the plant establishment period. Many different types of irrigation systems exist, including manual or automated spray systems, drip, and flood irrigation systems.
While a simple manual overhead system is less expensive, drip systems are typically more water efficient than overhead systems and provide more uniform coverage. Once vegetation is mature, introducing water from as low as feasible in the growing medium typically also results in the most resilient plants, as it draws plant roots to grow deeper. A variety of controllers and sensors are available that can be used to maximize water efficiency and stormwater holding capacity.
For example: Soil moisture sensors can be used to program irrigation to only be activated when soil is dry and plants need water controllers are available that time irrigation based on weather forecast and predicted evaporation rates, e. While almost all green roofs will need water during the plant establishment period, extensive green roofs can be designed without permanent irrigation. Intensive green roofs almost always need a permanent irrigation system, depending on factors such as project goals and plant palette.
Efficient irrigation is not expected to decrease stormwater benefits of green roofs, since lusher vegetation and moister soils provide greater evapotranspiration. Edging, curbs, or borders are often included to separate vegetated areas from non-vegetated areas. Curbs or borders are also sometimes used to provide a firebreak or protection from wind uplift Green Roofs for Healthy Cities and The Cardinal Group, Vegetated roofs generally also include vegetation free zones, for example, in areas prone to high wind uplift, where firebreaks are needed, for protection in areas where icicles are likely to fall, for easier access to roof flashings, or for other maintenance related issues.
These vegetation free zones are most often located at a minimum around the roof perimeter and around roof drains and other penetrations. The surface of the vegetation free zones can consist, for example, of roof ballast or pavers. Under the roof ballast or pavers, the assembly is typically the same as for the green roof. Media reviews. Green Roof Systems, provides technical information for the planning, construction and maintenance of green roofs.
The authors provide a lucid introduction with basic definitions of green roofs and a discussion of the serious effects that conventional roofs can have on the environment.