The Transparent Market: Management Challenges in the Electronic Age
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This initiative is designed to drive collaboration, accelerated thinking, genuine breakthroughs and ownership of solutions to these questions. The founding members will bring a holistic, community view to the issue, and will include leading academics, researchers, corporates, consumer groups, Federal government representatives, and relevant charities — all deeply involved in AI, its use, advantages and disadvantages. As organisations, governments and individuals adopt artificial intelligence, ethical frameworks are required to maximise the benefits to society.
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We want to ensure that you are kept up to date with any changes and as such would ask that you take a moment to review the changes. You will not continue to receive KPMG subscriptions until you accept the changes. Close Hi! However, for the most part, these studies have been somewhat narrow in scope, focusing on those aspects of digital marketing particularly food-company-sponsored advergames that can be easily quantified and measured through content analysis and other traditional mass communication methods. It is not until children reach the age of 7 or 8 that they have the cognitive ability to recognize the persuasive intent behind a television advertisement.
In recent years, however, some scholars have begun to critique the cognitive model, suggesting other theoretical approaches for assessing the impact of contemporary marketing. Below, we briefly consider three: dual-process models of persuasion; models of affective response; and models of familiarity and social norms. Dual-process models of persuasion. Dual-process models of persuasion are commonly utilized in consumer behavior research to understand how advertising and other marketing efforts influence consumption-related behaviors. Two separate and distinct sets of mental processes—explicit and implicit—are at work in persuasive communication.
Digital marketing routinely relies on implicit persuasion. Recent research has suggested that dual-process models of persuasion may be a more appropriate approach for understanding new media marketing strategies.
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Models of affective response. Brand marketing, even outside the digital context, is increasingly focused on instilling more emotional responses rather than conscious, deliberate ones. But with digital marketing, there are additional elements that are purposely designed to circumvent the deliberate elaboration or conscious processing of product attributes. The role of affect in persuasion has generally been construed as a mediator in dual-process models. A number of scholars have proposed that unconscious, or automatic, processes may underlie responses to emotionally oriented advertising.
Models of familiarity and social norms. Given the ubiquity of digital media, exposure to marketing has become frequent and commonplace, engendering a level of familiarity that may go unnoticed yet result in significant marketing effects. According to the mere exposure effect model also called the familiarity principle in social psychology , people exhibit a preference for things because they are familiar with them.
Some evidence already points to such effects in a digital context. Scholars have noted that unhealthful eating behaviors may emerge and flourish in environments where that behavior is viewed as normal and acceptable. When the ubiquity of marketing brands and icons is combined with the various forms of engagement and integrated into social interactions, the impact of familiarity and social norms may be further intensified. It is critical for researchers to understand the effect of synergy across digital platforms, as well as digital synergy with other traditional marketing methods.
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Contextual factors must also be taken into account, especially when researching ethnic minority youth and other cultural subgroups. Although we have highlighted some relevant theories and models, additional approaches need to be explored that could provide further insights for guiding the study of digital food marketing.
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For example, the obesity research paradigm developed by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network AACORN is framed as an ecological model that includes variables specifically focused on studying African-American communities and may be adapted to examine other sub-cultural groups. For example: What is the role of age difference in how youth are affected by digital marketing? How does implicit persuasion work in the digital context? How does it vary depending on the marketing techniques employed?
How aware are young people of the various techniques that marketers use to target them? To what extent and in what ways are they aware of the risks involved with certain forms of digital food marketing?
How does digital marketing increase desire, not only for specific food and beverage brands, but also for unhealthful products in general? As scholars begin to address some of these questions, we suggest several areas of inquiry that deserve particular focus:. Adolescent vulnerabilities. Adolescents are at serious risk for obesity, and the teen years are a critical developmental period, during which long-term consumer habits and eating behaviors are established and reinforced. All of these issues need to be explored further if we are to understand fully how these processes work in digital food marketing.
Do young people who are already overweight or obese have greater susceptibility to these forms of marketing? How do digital media increase arousal among teens? What types of media experiences e. How do digital media trigger mood variation? The role of identity formation in the commercial digital context is an important related area for further research.
Understanding the processes and mechanisms that underlie the relationship appears to be a fruitful area for future research.
And if so, how? And while this is an important area of inquiry for all children, investigations should also consider additional or different influences that emerge specifically for minority youth.
For example, are there specific identity-relevant targeted strategies that enhance receptiveness among minority youth? Targeted digital marketing to ethnic minority groups. Driven by the sheer number and growth of minority youth, as well as by their favorable usage patterns and cultural trendsetting, digital marketers have made understanding and reaching minority youth a priority. Target marketing to African-American and Hispanic youth influences their consumption choices by affecting the awareness and availability of food-related information and options, and can contribute to perceived norms.
Moreover, minority youth are important cultural models who influence the behaviors of the larger youth population. Does geolocation targeting through mobile phones and other devices take particular advantage of those youth who are already more disadvantaged than others, such as those who live in unhealthy contexts? Impulsivity and addictive behaviors. Over time, such responses become habitual. When products with compelling and addictive properties are marketed to young people through contemporary digital techniques, their impact on health behaviors may be compounded.
For example, snack foods with high fats, sugars, and salts are often inserted seamlessly into immersive virtual environments and interactive games.
Might they also act as contextual cues that trigger food cravings? To the extent that these experiences are habitual, as they often are with interactive games and virtual worlds, could their impact be further intensified through repeated interactions? Similarly, could cravings be triggered through mobile marketing by targeting young people with fast-food promotions and discount coupons when they are near a fast food restaurant? These types of campaigns could create powerful contexts in which resistance to marketing messages would be particularly challenging.
Studies are needed to explore these and other related hypotheses. Flexible and innovative approaches are needed to understand the complex ways that youth are interacting with this new commercial media culture. Much of this research will need to be collaborative and interdisciplinary, combining expertise from various fields to pose hypotheses that cut across disciplines and across levels of influence.
The toolbox of techniques that digital market researchers use to assess youth consumer behavior could also be adapted for academic researchers, as long as these techniques are employed in accordance with academic standards for ethical research. Specific measures could be developed for assessing each of the key concepts; these measures, in turn, could be incorporated into a model for understanding the impact of food marketing on attitudes and behaviors.
Studies that can apply what social scientists are learning to critical issues in the legal and policy arenas are also urgently needed. Though the government has limited ability to ban advertising and marketing content because of important constitutional protections for free speech, there are several areas where it can develop safeguards that may limit what marketers can do, especially in areas of particular sensitivity.
Addressing these new marketing practices may require new legal theories and regulatory approac hes that can take into account both contemporary marketing practices and recent research on child and adolescent behavior. Should marketing that is designed to bypass rational decision making be considered differently from protected commercial speech? Finally, the growing public debate over online privacy requires researchers to address the policy issues related to data collection and behavioral targeting, which have become a central strategy in digital food-and-beverage promotion efforts.
Digital marketing is advancing rapidly, and is poised to reach a crucial tipping point in the very near future, as expenditures for Internet and mobile advertising continue to rise. Major food and beverage companies are investing heavily in global research and development strategies designed to enhance their ability to promote brands through interactive media—with particular focus on socialmedia, online video, neuromarketing, mobile marketing, and location marketing.
A coordinated and strategic effort is urgently needed to address the dramatic changes in the advertising and marketing landscape, and to develop public health interventions and regulatory safeguards for reversing the youth obesity epidemic. While online advertising spending still constitutes a relatively small portion of overall U. Internet users received a total of 4. Alan J. It's especially true if the goal is to create a loyal customer base.
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Even if the brand's existence can not be attributed solely to a social cause, creating meaningful marketing campaigns that demonstrate the brand's convictions will surely strengthen brand perception in both employees and customers' eyes. Connecting your brand to a social cause reveals its human nature. Doing so certainly can appeal to different audiences. However, brands need to be critical of how consistent they are in this respect as the window dressing strategy can backfire and consumers will actually drop your brand if you fail to prove real and consistent actions.
While there are many lucrative options for brands to increase their customer base and market share using technology and marketing strategies, not everyone should jump on the bandwagon. What works for many B2C companies won't work for B2B and vice versa.